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Culturing Phakopsora pachyrhizi on Detached Leaves and Urediniospore Survival at Different Temperatures and Relative Humidities
- Twizeyimana, M., Hartman, G.L.
- Plant disease 2010 v.94 no.12 pp. 1453
- Phakopsora pachyrhizi, plant pathogenic fungi, fungal spores, spore germination, relative humidity, rust diseases, Glycine max, soybeans
- Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is one of the most important foliar diseases of soybean worldwide. In a series of experiments, multiple objectives were addressed to determine the (i) longevity of detached soybean leaves, (ii) reproductive capacity of uredinia on leaves inoculated and/or incubated on the abaxial versus adaxial side of the leaf, (iii) reproductive capacity of uredinia and urediniospore germination when spores were harvested at regular intervals or all at once, and (iv) effect of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on urediniospore germination. A detached-leaf assay using agar medium amended with 6-benzylaminopurine performed better in retarding leaf chlorosis than filter paper alone among five soybean genotypes. Among the three susceptible genotypes tested, detached leaves of cv. Williams 82 had the lowest level of leaf chlorosis and often allowed for the greatest urediniospore production and germination rate. Temperature and RH played significant roles in survival of urediniospore as measured by germination rates. Viable urediniospores were harvested from infected soybean leaves maintained at room temperature (23 to 24°C at 55 to 60% RH) for up to 18 days, whereas freshly harvested urediniospores that were desiccated for 12 h before being placed in vials and maintained at room temperature remained viable for up to 30 days. Urediniospore hydration was the major factor for the dormancy reversion; thermal shock with hydration and no thermal shock with hydration treatments had consistently similar urediniospore germination rates. In the RH experiment, urediniospores harvested from inoculated leaf pieces maintained at 85% RH had the highest germination rates compared with higher and lower RH. Improvement in P. pachyrhizi cultural techniques and understanding of urediniospore survival will enhance our knowledge of the pathogen biology, host-plant relationship, and conditions that favor the infection, reproduction, and survival of the pathogen.