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Gangliosides and sialic acid effects upon newborn pathogenic bacteria adhesion: An in vitro study

Salcedo, J., Barbera, R., Matencio, E., Alegría, A., Lagarda, M.J.
Food chemistry 2013 v.136 no.2 pp. 726-734
Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Shigella sonnei, adhesion, bacteria, bacterial adhesion, breast milk, cell membranes, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, gangliosides, in vitro studies, infant formulas, neonates, sialic acids
The effect of the main gangliosides (GM1, GM3, GD3) and free sialic acid (Neu5Ac) upon the adhesion of pathogenic bacteria implicated in infant diarrhoea is assessed in vitro using the Caco-2 cell line. Concentrations of the bioactive compounds found in the bioaccessible (soluble) fraction of infant formula and human milk are employed. Bacterial adhesion behaviour included enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E.coli (EPEC), Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella entericaserovartyphi, Shigella sonnei, Campylobacter jejuni and Helicobacter pylori. Three different approaches were assayed: pre-incubation of bacteria and compounds before addition to cells (competition); pre-incubation of the cells with compounds (exclusion); and pre-incubation of cells with bacteria (displacement). Furthermore, the spatial localization of the most abundant gangliosides, GM3 and GD3, in Caco-2 cells has been determined using confocal microscopy. Results show that GM3, GD3, GM1 and Neu5Ac at the assayed concentrations are able to interfere with the adhesion of several pathogenic bacteria involved in neonatal diseases-the greatest effect corresponding to Neu5Ac, followed by GD3, GM1 and GM3. Gangliosides GM3 and GD3 are located in the apical and basolateral membranes of the Caco-2 cells.