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Rhytidium rugosum (Bryophyta) colonized Scandinavia from at least two glacial refugial source populations

Hedenäs, Lars
Botanical journal of the Linnean Society 2015 v.179 no.4 pp. 635-657
Bryopsida, haplotypes, internal transcribed spacers, mosses and liverworts, mountains, refuge habitats, vegetation, Europe, Scandinavia
The Scandinavian post‐glacial history of the moss Rhytidium rugosum is traced on the basis of information from the nuclear markers ITS and gpd for 229 Scandinavian and 81 other specimens. Some haplotypes, groups or lineages identified in a NeighborNet split network are predominantly northern Scandinavian, whereas others are southern. With the distributions of individual haplotypes and the timing of the deglaciation in different parts of Scandinavia, this implies colonization from the south and from the north or north‐east. High haplotype and nucleotide diversity and the occurrence of certain private haplotypes in the north suggest that the species may have survived the Last Glacial Maximum in local refugia. Slightly higher numbers of private haplotypes in Scandinavia than in central or north‐eastern Europe also favour an explanation with at least some local glacial survival. Low diversity in the southernmost contiguous region of the Scandinavian mountain range is probably a result of recent land uplift and late colonization. The Scandinavian lowland regional populations probably represent remains of an earlier widespread population that became increasingly restricted to small and isolated areas when the vegetation closed during the post‐glacial period. Some of the lowland populations require extensive management to survive. © 2015 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2015, 179, 635–657.