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Metabolic fingerprints in testicular biopsies from type 1 diabetic patients

Alves, Marco G., Martins, Ana D., Moreira, Paula I., Carvalho, Rui A., Sousa, Mário, Barros, Alberto, Silva, Joaquina, Pinto, Soraia, Simões, Teresinha, Oliveira, Pedro Fontes
Cell and tissue research 2015 v.362 no.2 pp. 431-440
alanine, alanine transaminase, biopsy, citrates, creatine, diabetes mellitus, germ cells, glucose transporters, human fertility, lactate dehydrogenase, males, men, messenger RNA, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, pandemic, patients, phosphofructokinases, protein synthesis, testes
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease that has grown to pandemic proportions. Recent reports have highlighted the effect of DM on male reproductive function. Here, we hypothesize that testicular metabolism is altered in type 1 diabetic (T1D) men seeking fertility treatment. We propose to determine some metabolic fingerprints in testicular biopsies of diabetic patients. For that, testicular tissue from five normal and five type 1 diabetic men was analyzed by high-resolution magic-angle spinning (HR-MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. mRNA and protein expression of glucose transporters and glycolysis-related enzymes were also evaluated. Our results show that testes from diabetic men presented decreased levels of lactate, alanine, citrate and creatine. The mRNA levels of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK1) were decreased in testes from diabetic men but only GLUT3 presented decreased mRNA and protein levels. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) protein levels were also found to be decreased in testes from diabetic men. Overall, our results show that T1D alters glycolysis-related transporters and enzymes, compromising lactate content in the testes. Moreover, testicular creatine content was severely depressed in T1D men. Since lactate and creatine are essential for germ cells development and support, the data discussed here open new insights into the molecular mechanism by which DM promotes subfertility/infertility in human males.