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Comparison of Essential Oil Composition, Flavonoid Content and Antioxidant Activity in Eight Achillea Species

Gharibi, Shima, Tabatabaei, Badraldin Ebrahim Sayed, Saeidi, Ghodratollah
Journal of essential oil-bearing plants 2015 v.18 no.6 pp. 1382-1394
Achillea, absorbance, antioxidant activity, borneol, camphor, cineole, cluster analysis, essential oils, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, introduced species, leaves, quercetin, secondary metabolites, spathulenol
In this research, essential oil yield and composition, total phenolic, flavonioid content and antioxidant activity of eight Achillea (A. vermicularis , A. nobilis , A. wilhelmsii, A. millefolium , A. filipendulina , A. tenuifolia , A. biebersteinii and A. eriophora) species were compared. The essential oil yield of the leaves ranged from 0.35 % in A. wilhelmsii to 1.5 % in A. biebersteinii . GC-MS analyses revealed 40 compounds in leaves of eight Achillea species. The main constituents were 1,8-cineole, germacrene-D, camphor, borneol and spathulenol. Total phenolic content (TPC) varied from 13.56 in A. biebersteinii to 188.66 mg/1g of dry weight in A. wilhelmsii while, total flavonoid content (TFC) ranged from 19.23 in A. eriophora to 79.16 (mg Quercetin/gdW) in A. biebersteinii . Antioxidant activity of methanolic extract was evaluated according to 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazy (DPPH), ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and β-carotene-linoleic acid assay. In DPPH assay, A. eriophora showed the highest Ic ₅₀ (1172 µg/ml), while A. biebersteinii possessed the lowest one (179 µg/ml). For reducing power, the highest and the lowest absorbance in 700 nm belonged to A. tenuifolia (2.311) and A. wilhelmsii (0.306), respectively. Cluster analysis of Achillea species based on their major secondary metabolites were also classified the species in to three groups. Finally, comparison of studied species introduced A. biebresteinii as a good source of essential oil, flavonoid content and high antioxidant activity.