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Antibacterial mechanism and activities of black pepper chloroform extract
- Zou, Lan, Hu, Yue-Ying, Chen, Wen-Xue
- Journal of food science and technology 2015 v.52 no.12 pp. 8196-8203
- Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, adenosine triphosphate, anti-infective properties, bacteria, black pepper, cell death, chloroform, energy, food spoilage, membrane permeability, metabolism, plasmolysis, pyruvic acid
- Black pepper extracts reportedly inhibit food spoilage and food pathogenic bacteria. This study explored the antimicrobial activity of black pepper chloroform extract (BPCE) against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The antibacterial mechanism of BPCE was elucidated by analyzing the cell morphology, respiratory metabolism, pyruvic acid content, and ATP levels of the target bacteria. Scanning electron micrographs showed that the bacterial cells were destroyed and that plasmolysis was induced. BPCE inhibited the tricarboxylic acid pathway of the bacteria. The extract significantly increased pyruvic acid concentration in bacterial solutions and reduced ATP level in bacterial cells. BPCE destroyed the permeability of the cell membrane, which consequently caused metabolic dysfunction, inhibited energy synthesis, and triggered cell death.