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Toxicity of an Acetogenin-Based Bioinsecticide Against Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) and its Parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

Ribeiro, Leandro Do Prado, Santos, Mônica Silva, Gonçalves, Gabriel Luiz Padoan, Vendramim, José Djair
The Florida entomologist 2015 v.98 no.3 pp. 835-842
parasitoids, oviposition, seedlings, insect vectors, integrated pest management, field experimentation, lethal concentration 50, Diaphorina citri, adults, azadirachtin, orchards, greening disease, residual effects, farms, nymphs, Citrus, insect pests, aldehyde oxidoreductases, seeds, insecticidal properties, Tamarixia radiata, larvae, toxicity, mortality, biopesticides, greenhouse experimentation, instars, oranges, Annona mucosa
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is currently the most important insect pest affecting citrus worldwide due to its relation (as insect vector) with huanglongbing (greening) disease. To determine an alternative tool for D. citri control, this study evaluated the insecticidal activity of ethanolic extract from Annona mucosa Jacq. (Magnoliales: Annonaceae) seeds (ESAM), which has the acetogenin rolliniastatin-1 as its major compound, against D. citri. ESAM caused high mortality in both 3rd instar nymphs (LC₅₀ = 429.43, 247.95, 148.16, 96.89, and 57.76 mg/L after 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h of exposure, respectively) and adults (LC₅₀ = 5,359.00, 2,464.00, 1,507.00, and 795.51 mg/L after 48, 72, 96, and 120 h of exposure, respectively), showing higher effectiveness than Azamax® 1.2 EC (azadirachtin + 3-tigloylazadirachtol, positive control) at the recommended concentration, which showed insecticidal effects only on nymphs. At a sublethal concentration (LC₂₅), ESAM caused significant reductions in feeding and oviposition of D. citri adults. However, the adult emergence of the ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) was reduced when exposed (by contact) to ESAM in its larval stage. In a greenhouse trial (seedlings cultivated in vases), the insecticidal activity of formulated ESAM was superior to that of Azamax® 1.2 EC, showing a residual effect of approximately 6 d (effectiveness > 80%). The effectiveness of ESAM (> 99%) for D. citri control also was confirmed in a commercial sweet orange farm (field trial). In light of these results, ESAM can constitute a useful component in the framework of D. citri integrated pest management, mainly in domestic orchards and organic systems.