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Effect of Biochar on Heavy Metal Speciation of Paddy Soil

Zhu, Qihong, Wu, Jun, Wang, Lilin, Yang, Gang, Zhang, Xiaohong
Water, air, and soil pollution 2015 v.226 no.12 pp. 429
biochar, cadmium, chromium, copper, heavy metals, lead, leaves, nickel, paddies, paddy soils, polluted soils, rice, rice hulls, roots, soil amendments, soil pH, soil remediation, stems, wines, zinc, China
Biochar has great advantages and potentials on soil amendment and polluted soil remediation. In order to explore these applications, a pot experiment was carried out to research the effect of biochar on the heavy metal speciation in paddy soil and the heavy metal accumulation of paddy rice from Chengdu plain, Sichuan Province. The experimental results show that wine lees-derived biochar can efficiently increase soil pH, decrease the contents of soil exchangeable heavy metals, and promote heavy metal transformation to residual fraction. Moreover, application of biochar can reduce the accumulation of heavy metals in paddy plant, decrease the migration ability of heavy metals to the aboveground part of the plant, and consequently cut down contents of heavy metals in rice. When biochar dosage was 0.5 % in weight, the contents of soil exchangeable Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd decreased 18.8, 29.6, 26.3, 23.0, 23.01, and 48.14 %, respectively, which all significantly differed from CK (P < 0.05), and the contents of heavy metals in plant roots, stems, leaves, rice husk, and rice all decreased accordingly, among which Zn, Cd, and Pb decreased 10.96, 8.89, and 8.33 % respectively. When biochar dosage increased to 1 %, heavy metal contents in roots, stems, leaves, rice husk, and rice decreased further. Therefore, wine lees-derived biochar shows a great potential in remediation of heavy-metal-polluted soil, and this work provides theoretical basis for restoring heavy-metal-polluted soil using biochar.