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Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) environmental sources, fate, transport, and routes of exposure

Mackay, Donald, Cowan‐Ellsberry, Christina E., Powell, David E., Woodburn, Kent B., Xu, Shihe, Kozerski, Gary E., Kim, Jaeshin
Environmental toxicology and chemistry 2015 v.34 no.12 pp. 2689-2702
biosolids, effluents, exposure pathways, humans, monitoring, risk, risk assessment, sediments, soil, surface water, toxicity, wastewater treatment, Canada
The environmental sources, fate, transport, and routes of exposure of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5; CAS no. 541‐02‐6) are reviewed in the present study, with the objective of contributing to effective risk evaluation and assessment of this and related substances. The present review, which is part of a series of studies discussing aspects of an effective risk evaluation and assessment, was prompted in part by the findings of a Board of Review undertaken to comment on a decision by Environment Canada made in 2008 to subject D5 to regulation as a toxic substance. The present review focuses on the early stages of the assessment process and how information on D5's physical–chemical properties, uses, and fate in the environment can be integrated to give a quantitative description of fate and exposure that is consistent with available monitoring data. Emphasis is placed on long‐range atmospheric transport and fate in water bodies receiving effluents from wastewater treatment plants (along with associated sediments) and soils receiving biosolids. The resulting exposure estimates form the basis for assessments of the resulting risk presented in other studies in this series. Recommendations are made for developing an improved process by which D5 and related substances can be evaluated effectively for risk to humans and the environment. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:2689–2702. © 2015 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC