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Sensory descriptive analysis, sensory acceptability and expectation studies on biscuits with reduced added salt and increased fiber

Vazquez, Marisa Beatriz, Curia, Ana, Hough, Guillermo
Journal of sensory studies 2009 v.24 no.4 pp. 498-511
biscuits, bran, consumer acceptance, fiber content, food marketing, food service, salts, sensory evaluation, sensory properties, sodium, taste, world markets
The aims of this study were to formulate biscuits with 50% more fiber and 50% less added salt than classic formulations, to describe their sensory characteristics, to measure expectation/sensory acceptability, and to investigate if sensory acceptability for these biscuits was related to the interest in consuming food products with less salt and/or more fiber content. A 2 x 2 factorial design was used to develop four formulations: conventional fiber/conventional salt; conventional fiber/reduced salt; increased fiber/conventional salt; and increased fiber/reduced salt. Differences in the sensory profiles measured by a trained panel were of low magnitude, except for presence and taste of bran. Adolescent and adult consumers evaluated acceptability in three stages: blind with three-digit codes; expectation of the label only; and biscuit + label. The low salt formulations received the lowest scores in the expectation stage, but in the blind and biscuit + label stages acceptability of all formulations was similar. The variables that explained overall acceptance were: measurement stage; formulation salt level; interest in reducing consumption of high salt foods; and interest in consuming bakery products with fiber. Increasing fiber content of biscuits by 40 to 50% helps achieve recommendations to increase fiber intake in daily diets. Also, as biscuits currently on the Argentine and other world markets present two extreme varieties - with or without added salt - formulating a biscuit with 50% less added salt facilitate sodium reduction. In our research we have found that these goals can be achieved without seriously affecting sensory acceptability. We propose the articulation of the necessary strategies with the food industry to market biscuits with less added salt and more fiber for the general population; and the use of these healthier biscuits by institutional food services.