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Geothermal bathing and recreation centres in Poland
- Halaj, Elzbieta
- Environmental earth sciences 2015 v.74 no.12 pp. 7497-7509
- aquifers, lowlands, recreation, sodium, total dissolved solids, water temperature, wells, Poland
- Ten geothermal bathing and recreation centres have been established in Poland from 2006 to 2013. The largest number of geothermal bathing and recreation centres is located in the Podhale region and in the Polish Lowlands. These structural units have the best geothermal conditions. The maximum reservoir’s temperatures in the main aquifer of the Podhale Geothermal System can reach ca. 120–128 °C in the deeper parts of the system. The most prospective and exploited aquifers occur within the Middle Triassic formations and in overlaying Middle Eocene formations at the depth of 1,000–3,700 m. At present, five operating centres are located in the Podhale region. They use geothermal waters with the temperature of 27–82 °C (the lowest and the highest wellhead temperature of water from wells which are connected for recreational purposes) and total dissolved solids (TDS) of 0.4–3 g/dm³. In the Polish Lowlands, the reservoir’s temperatures vary from 20 to 130 °C at depths of 1–4 km. The most prospective geothermal aquifers of the Polish Lowlands occur within the Lower Cretaceous and the Lower Jurassic formations. Five geothermal recreation centres are currently operating. The centres use waters with the temperature of 38–72 °C and a wide range TDS from 0.4 to 79 g/dm³. Geothermal waters of the Polish Lowlands are generally high in Na and Cl concentrations. The new centres will use the waters of Lower Jurassic aquifers, the outflow temperatures of which vary from 27 to 82 °C and a TDS from 6 to 140 g/dm³.