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ABC transporter PEN3/PDR8/ABCG36 interacts with calmodulin that, like PEN3, is required for Arabidopsis nonhost resistance

Campe, Ruth, Langenbach, Caspar, Leissing, Franz, Popescu, George V., Popescu, Sorina C., Goellner, Katharina, Beckers, Gerold J. M., Conrath, Uwe
The new phytologist 2016 v.209 no.1 pp. 294-306
ABC transporters, Arabidopsis, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, Phakopsora pachyrhizi, agarose, calcium, calmodulin, fluorescence, fungi, immunity, microarray technology, mutants, pathogens, plant architecture, post-translational modification
Nonhost resistance (NHR) is the most prevalent form of plant immunity. In Arabidopsis, NHR requires membrane‐localized ATP‐binding cassette (ABC) transporter PENETRATION (PEN) 3. Upon perception of pathogen‐associated molecular patterns, PEN3 becomes phosphorylated, suggestive of PEN3 regulation by post‐translational modification. Here, we investigated the PEN3 protein interaction network. We probed the Arabidopsis protein microarray AtPMA‐5000 with the N‐terminal cytoplasmic domain of PEN3. Several of the proteins identified to interact with PEN3 in vitro represent cellular Ca²⁺ sensors, including calmodulin (CaM) 3, CaM7 and several CaM‐like proteins, pointing to the importance of Ca²⁺ sensing to PEN3‐mediated NHR. We demonstrated co‐localization of PEN3 and CaM7, and we confirmed PEN3–CaM interaction in vitro and in vivo by PEN3 pull‐down with CaM Sepharose, CaM overlay assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation. We also show that just like in pen3, NHR to the nonadapted fungal pathogens Phakopsora pachyrhizi and Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei is compromised in the Arabidopsis cam7 and pen3 cam7 mutants. Our study discloses CaM7 as a PEN3‐interacting protein crucial to Arabidopsis NHR and emphasizes the importance of Ca²⁺ sensing to plant immunity.