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Micropropagation of calendula officinalis and Lavandula angustifolia for genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity studies

Santos, A., Gaivao, I., Leal, F.
Acta horticulturae 2015 no.1083 pp. 67-73
Calendula officinalis, Drosophila melanogaster, Lavandula angustifolia, antioxidants, cosmetics, culture media, explants, flowers, genotoxicity, leaves, medicinal plants, micropropagation, naphthaleneacetic acid, people, roots, seeds, shoots
Nowadays, more and more, people are using aromatic and medicinal plants from different sources (leaves, flowers, roots or seeds), in different forms like infusions, medicaments or cosmetics. These products are, many times, acquired at uncertified places without knowledge of their safety. Calendula and Lavandula are plants with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, among other, proprieties, thus it is highly important to know the genotoxicity or antigenotoxicity properties of these plants. For that purpose, in this study we micropropagated Calendula officinalis and Lavandula angustifolia. Nodal segments of each plant were disinfected and installed in culture medium, for Calendula we used MS medium with 1 or 2 mg/L BAP and 0.1 mg/L NAA; for Lavandula we used MS medium with 1.5 mg/L BAP or Kin added to 0.05 mg/L NAA, or 1.0 mg/L BAP with 0.05 mg/L NAA. During eight weeks the number and length of shoots were evaluated for both plants. Calendula plants showed the best results in MS + 2 mg/L BAP + 0.1 mg/L NAA for all parameters studied (6.6 shoots/explants, 63.2 mm length of shoots). Lavandula plants originated higher shoot number and length in MS + 1 mg/L BAP + 0.05 mg/L NAA (3.9 and 47.2 mm, respectively). Studies of genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity using SMART test in Drosophila melanogaster reveal that both plants have some genotoxicity, concerning the antigenotoxic effect Lavandula shows inconclusive or negative results, while Calendula seems to have a little antigenotoxic effect.