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New In Vitro Studies on the Bioprofile of Genista tenera Antihyperglycemic Extract

Batista, Daniela, Falé, Pedro L., Serralheiro, Maria L., Araújo, Maria E., Madeira, Paulo J. A., Borges, Carlos, Torgal, Isabel, Goulart, Margarida, Justino, Jorge, Martins, Alice, Rauter, Amélia P.
Nat. Prod. Bioprospect. 2015 v.5 no.6 pp. 277-285
Genista, acarbose, alpha-glucosidase, anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid, blood glucose, butanol, carbohydrate metabolism, chemical composition, enzyme activity, enzyme inhibition, flavonoids, gastrointestinal system, glucose-6-phosphatase, glycemic effect, glycosides, hepatoma, in vitro digestion, inflammation, irradiation, liver, noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, oxidative stress, pancreatic juice, rats, ultraviolet radiation, viability
The inhibition of α-glucosidase and glucose-6-phosphatase, two enzymes involved in the carbohydrate metabolism, is an important target to control glycaemia on individuals with type 2 diabetes. In this work we report for the first time the inhibition of both enzymes by the antihyperglycemic n-butanol extract from Genista tenera (Fabaceae). This extract decreased α-glucosidase and glucose-6-phosphatase activities to 0.97 and 80.25 %, respectively, being more effective than acarbose, and phlorizin, the positive controls, which reduced enzymes activities only to 17.39 and 96.06 %. Once inflammation and oxidative stress are related to diabetic impairments, the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract was also evaluated, through its inhibitory activity over COX-1 enzyme (47.5 % inhibition). Moreover, after induction of oxidative stress by UV radiation, the viability of irradiated rat liver hepatoma cells exposed to the extract was significantly higher (67.82 %) than that promoted by ascorbic acid, the positive control (45.05 %). In addition, the stability of the extract under gastrointestinal conditions was evaluated by HPLC–DAD-ESI–MS/MS. Flavonoid diglycosides were identified as the main constituents of the extract, and no alterations in the chemical composition nor in the antioxidant activity were observed after in vitro digestion with artificial gastric and pancreatic juices.