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Phytosterol oxides content in selected thermally processed products

Derewiaka, D., Obiedziński, M.
European food research & technology 2012 v.234 no.4 pp. 703-712
French fries, beef, blood glucose, blood serum, cytotoxicity, eggs, fish fillets, fish meat, food preparation, frozen fish, heat treatment, humans, minced meat, noodles, oxidation, oxides, pork, sterols, wheat, Europe
Heat treatments are very popular methods of food preparation in European countries. Phytosterol present in foodstuffs undergoes oxidative changes during heat treatment, and phytosterol oxides (e.g., 7α-, 7β-hydroxysterol, 5α,6α-, 5β,6β-epoxysterol, 7-ketosterol and triol) are formed. Phytosterol oxidation products (POPs) have been associated with cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects in humans. On the other hand, several studies conducted on animals revealed that some phytosterol oxides lower serum triacyglycerol and blood glucose levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on formation of phytosterol oxidation products in selected foodstuffs. The following products were taken into considerations: minced meat (pork and beef), frozen French fries, frozen fish fillets, frozen fish products (e.g., fish sticks), wheat and egg noodles. Sterols and POPs content was evaluated by GC–MS working in total and selected ion monitoring modes. The phytosterol oxidation rate was higher in French fries and fish fillets (0.20–1.69% of total phytosterol content) than in noodles, minced meats and readymade fish products (in 0.04–0.36% range). Method of POPs determination using GC–MS is reported in this study. Results of this study show also that products of the animal origin might be considered as sources of the phytosterol oxides in the human diet.