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The influence of raw and processed garlic and onions on plasma classical and non-classical atherosclerosis indices: investigations in vitro and in vivo
- Gorinstein, Shela, Leontowicz, Hanna, Leontowicz, Maria, Jastrzebski, Zenon, Najman, Katarzyna, Tashma, Zev, Katrich, Elena, Heo, Buk-Gu, Cho, Ja-Yong, Park, Yun-Jum, Trakhtenberg, Simon
- Phytotherapy research 2010 v.24 no.5 pp. 706-714
- alkaline phosphatase, antioxidant activity, atherosclerosis, blood lipids, cholesterol, garlic, in vivo studies, onions, rats
- Garlic and white and red varieties of onion were subjected to processing by a variety of culinary methods, and bioactive compounds then determined. For in vivo studies, 84 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 14 diet groups, each of six rats, including two control groups (one with no supplementation and one with cholesterol supplementation only). During the 30-day trial, the basal diets of the other 12 groups were supplemented with 1% cholesterol and raw or processed vegetables.Both raw red onion and red onion subjected to blanching for 90 s hindered the rise in plasma lipids more than the other vegetables studied in the supplemented diets. The decrease in antioxidant activity compared to the cholesterol-supplemented control group was significantly less for the group fed with red onion subjected to blanching for 90 s.No histological changes were detected in the studied organs of rats that had been fed cholesterol. In conclusion, blanching for 90 s most fully preserved the bioactive compounds and antioxidant potentials, and hindered the rise in plasma lipid levels and the decrease in plasma antioxidant activity of rats fed cholesterol. Alkaline phosphatase levels correlated with classical atherosclerosis indices, and determination of alkaline phosphatase is suggested as an additional index in atherosclerosis testing.