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Enzymatic properties of the glycine d-alanine aminopeptidase of Aspergillus oryzae and its activity profiles in liquid-cultured mycelia and solid-state rice culture (rice koji)
- Marui, Junichiro, Matsushita-Morita, Mayumi, Tada, Sawaki, Hattori, Ryota, Suzuki, Satoshi, Amano, Hitoshi, Ishida, Hiroki, Yamagata, Youhei, Takeuchi, Michio, Kusumoto, Ken-Ichi
- Applied microbiology and biotechnology 2012 v.93 no.2 pp. 655-669
- Aspergillus oryzae, EDTA (chelating agent), Gram-negative bacteria, Ochrobactrum anthropi, amino acid sequences, amino acids, aminopeptidases, carbon, fermented foods, fungi, genes, koji, mycelium, nitrogen, pH, palatability, peptides, proteinase inhibitors, rice, sequence analysis, serine proteinases, traditional foods
- The gdaA gene encoding S12 family glycine–D-alanine aminopeptidase (GdaA) was found in the industrial fungus Aspergillus oryzae. GdaA shares 43% amino acid sequence identity with the D-aminopeptidase of the Gram-negative bacterium Ochrobactrum anthropi. GdaA purified from an A. oryzae gdaA-overexpressing strain exhibited high D-stereospecificity and efficiently released N-terminal glycine and D-alanine of substrates in a highly specific manner. The optimum pH and temperature were 8 to 9 and 40°C, respectively. This enzyme was stable under alkaline conditions at pH 8 to 11 and relatively resistant to acidic conditions until pH 5.0. The chelating reagent EDTA, serine protease inhibitors such as AEBSF, benzamidine, TPCK, and TLCK, and the thiol enzyme inhibitor PCMB inhibited the enzyme. The aminopeptidase inhibitor bestatin did not affect the activity. GdaA was largely responsible for intracellular glycine and D-alanine aminopeptidase activities in A. oryzae during stationary-phase growth in liquid media. In addition, the activity increased in response to the depletion of nitrogen or carbon sources in the growth media, although the GdaA-independent glycine aminopeptidase activity highly increased simultaneously. Aminopeptidases of A. oryzae attract attention because the enzymatic release of a variety of amino acids and peptides is important for the enhancement of the palatability of fermented foods. GdaA activity was found in extracts of a solid-state rice culture of A. oryzae (rice koji), which is widely used as a starter culture for Japanese traditional fermented foods, and was largely responsible for the glycine and D-alanine aminopeptidase activity detected at a pH range of 6 to 9.