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Variations in circulating inflammatory factors are related to changes in calorie and carbohydrate intakes early in the course of surgery-induced weight reduction

Dalmas, Elise, Rouault, Christine, Abdennour, Meriem, Rovere, Carole, Rizkalla, Salwa, Bar-Hen, Avner, Nahon, Jean-Louis, Bouillot, Jean-Luc, Guerre-Millo, Michèle, Clément, Karine, Poitou, Christine
The American journal of clinical nutrition 2011 v.94 no.2 pp. 450-458
energy intake, chemoattractants, T-lymphocytes, interferon-gamma, obesity, weight control programs, acute phase proteins, women, patients, interleukin-10, vascular endothelial growth factors, antagonists, hormone receptors, hormone antagonists, proteomics, body mass index, weight loss, bariatric surgery, carbohydrate intake, interleukin-9, inflammation
BACKGROUND: Obesity is considered a low-grade inflammatory state that improves with weight loss. In addition to acute-phase proteins, other cytokines might contribute to systemic inflammation. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to compare serum concentrations of a large panel of inflammation-related factors in obese and normal-weight subjects and to determine kinetic changes induced by caloric restriction. DESIGN: The cohort comprised 14 normal-weight women and 51 obese women who were followed over 2 y after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Multiplexed proteomics were used to simultaneously assay 27 cytokines and growth factors in serum. RESULTS: Concentrations of interleukin (IL)-9, IL-1-receptor antagonist, IL-10, interferon-γ-inducible protein 10, macrophage inflammatory protein 1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, IL-8, RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), monokine induced by interferon-γ, and vascular endothelial growth factor were found to be elevated in obesity. IL-10 was further elevated in diabetic obese patients, whereas eotaxin was found to be higher only in diabetic subjects. After surgery, many factors showed a biphasic pattern of variation, decreasing sharply at month 3 before rising back to presurgical values at month 6; these changes closely tracked similar kinetic changes in calorie and carbohydrate intake. After 1 y, an overall reduction in cytokines accompanied the reduction in body mass index and an amelioration in metabolic status. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity is associated with elevated circulating concentrations of a large panel of cytokines. Coordinated kinetic changes during weight loss suggest an early influence of calorie and carbohydrate intakes, whereas a longer-term reduction in corpulence might prevail in regulating circulating cytokine concentrations. This trial is registered at as NCT00476658.