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Removal of surface lipids improves the functionality of commercial zein in viscoelastic zein-starch dough for gluten-free breadmaking
- Schober, Tilman J., Moreau, Robert A., Bean, Scott R., Boyle, Daniel L.
- Journal of cereal science 2010 v.52 no.3 pp. 417
- breadmaking, bread dough, zein, defatting, lipids, chloroform, protein aggregates, breadmaking quality, rolls, gluten-free foods, viscoelasticity
- Maize prolamin (zein), together with starch, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, sugar, salt, yeast and water can form wheat-like cohesive, extensible, viscoelastic dough when mixed above room temperature (e.g. 40 °C). This dough is capable of holding gas. However, it is excessively extensible, and when used for hearth-type rolls, it tends to become flat. Bench-scale defatting of zein with chloroform at room temperature significantly (P < 0.05) improved specific volume (4.5 ml/g vs. 3.3 ml/g) and shape of the rolls (width-to-height 2.0 vs. 3.9). The total lipid content determined by accelerated solvent extraction (100 °C, 69 bar, chloroform), however, only decreased from 8.0 to 6.6% due to this bench-scale defatting. Staining experiments with Naphthol Blue Black suggested that bench-scale defatting removed surface lipids from the zein particles, and thus facilitated their aggregation. Aggregation experiments with zein and water at 40 °C, and laser scanning confocal microscopy with zein-starch dough confirmed that zein particles aggregated more easily when surface-defatted. Dynamic oscillatory temperature sweeps demonstrated that surface-defatting lowered the temperature at which protein cross-linking occurred by 2 °C. This research can help to produce superior gluten-free bread and could also possibly contribute to the better understanding of wheat dough.