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Removal of surface lipids improves the functionality of commercial zein in viscoelastic zein-starch dough for gluten-free breadmaking

Schober, Tilman J., Moreau, Robert A., Bean, Scott R., Boyle, Daniel L.
Journal of cereal science 2010 v.52 no.3 pp. 417
breadmaking, bread dough, zein, defatting, lipids, chloroform, protein aggregates, breadmaking quality, rolls, gluten-free foods, viscoelasticity
Maize prolamin (zein), together with starch, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, sugar, salt, yeast and water can form wheat-like cohesive, extensible, viscoelastic dough when mixed above room temperature (e.g. 40 °C). This dough is capable of holding gas. However, it is excessively extensible, and when used for hearth-type rolls, it tends to become flat. Bench-scale defatting of zein with chloroform at room temperature significantly (P < 0.05) improved specific volume (4.5 ml/g vs. 3.3 ml/g) and shape of the rolls (width-to-height 2.0 vs. 3.9). The total lipid content determined by accelerated solvent extraction (100 °C, 69 bar, chloroform), however, only decreased from 8.0 to 6.6% due to this bench-scale defatting. Staining experiments with Naphthol Blue Black suggested that bench-scale defatting removed surface lipids from the zein particles, and thus facilitated their aggregation. Aggregation experiments with zein and water at 40 °C, and laser scanning confocal microscopy with zein-starch dough confirmed that zein particles aggregated more easily when surface-defatted. Dynamic oscillatory temperature sweeps demonstrated that surface-defatting lowered the temperature at which protein cross-linking occurred by 2 °C. This research can help to produce superior gluten-free bread and could also possibly contribute to the better understanding of wheat dough.