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S-Layer Homology Domain Proteins Csac_0678 and Csac_2722 Are Implicated in Plant Polysaccharide Deconstruction by the Extremely Thermophilic Bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

Ozdemir, Inci, Blumer-Schuette, Sara E., Kelly, Robert M.
Applied and environmental microbiology 2012 v.78 no.3 pp. 768-777
Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus, active sites, antibodies, biomass, carbohydrate binding, carboxymethylcellulose, cellulose, endo-1,4-beta-glucanase, enzyme substrates, functional properties, genes, hydrolysis, immunoglobulins, lignocellulose, molecular weight, open reading frames, pH, protein binding, recruitment, sequence homology, somatotropin, thermophilic bacteria, xylanases
The genus Caldicellulosiruptor contains extremely thermophilic bacteria that grow on plant polysaccharides. The genomes of Caldicellulosiruptor species reveal certain surface layer homology (SLH) domain proteins that have distinguishing features, pointing to a role in lignocellulose deconstruction. Two of these proteins in Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus (Csac_0678 and Csac_2722) were examined from this perspective. In addition to three contiguous SLH domains, the Csac_0678 gene encodes a glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5) catalytic domain and a family 28 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM); orthologs to Csac_0678 could be identified in all genome-sequenced Caldicellulosiruptor species. Recombinant Csac_0678 was optimally active at 75°C and pH 5.0, exhibiting both endoglucanase and xylanase activities. SLH domain removal did not impact Csac_0678 GH activity, but deletion of the CBM28 domain eliminated binding to crystalline cellulose and rendered the enzyme inactive on this substrate. Csac_2722 is the largest open reading frame (ORF) in the C. saccharolyticus genome (predicted molecular mass of 286,516 kDa) and contains two putative sugar-binding domains, two Big4 domains (bacterial domains with an immunoglobulin [Ig]-like fold), and a cadherin-like (Cd) domain. Recombinant Csac_2722, lacking the SLH and Cd domains, bound to cellulose and had detectable carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) hydrolytic activity. Antibodies directed against Csac_0678 and Csac_2722 confirmed that these proteins bound to the C. saccharolyticus S-layer. Their cellular localization and functional biochemical properties indicate roles for Csac_0678 and Csac_2722 in recruitment and hydrolysis of complex polysaccharides and the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. Furthermore, these results suggest that related SLH domain proteins in other Caldicellulosiruptor genomes may also be important contributors to plant biomass utilization.