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T cell immunoglobulin and mucin protein-3 (Tim-3)/Galectin-9 interaction regulates influenza A virus-specific humoral and CD8 T-cell responses

Sharma, Shalini, Sundararajan, Aarthi, Suryawanshi, Amol, Kumar, Naveen, Veiga-Parga, Tamara, Kuchroo, Vijay K., Thomas, Paul G., Sangster, Mark Y., Rouse, Barry T.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2011 v.108 no.47 pp. 19001-19006
Influenza A virus, immune response, immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin M, mice, mucins, vaccines
Reactions to pathogens are usually tuned to effect immunity and limit tissue damage. Several host counterinflammatory mechanisms inhibit tissue damage but these may also act to constrain the effectiveness of immunity to acute infections, as we demonstrate in mice acutely infected with influenza A virus (IAV). We show that compared with wild type (WT), galectin-9 knockout (G9KO) mice mounted a more robust acute phase virus-specific CD8 T-cell response as well as higher and more rapid virus-specific serum IgM, IgG, and IgA responses and also cleared virus more rapidly than did WT mice. Blocking galectin-9 signals to Tim-3–expressing cells using a Tim-3 fusion protein resulted in improved immune responses in WT mice. When IAV immune mice were challenged with a heterologous IAV, the secondary IAV-specific CD8 T-cell responses were four- to fivefold higher in G9KO compared with WT mice. Our results indicate that manipulating galectin signals may represent a convenient approach to improve immune responses to some vaccines.