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Potential fresh water saving using greywater in toilet flushing in Syria

Author:
Mourad, Khaldoon A., Berndtsson, Justyna C., Berndtsson, Ronny
Source:
Journal of environmental management 2011 v.92 no.10 pp. 2447-2453
ISSN:
0301-4797
Subject:
biofilters, cities, constructed wetlands, drinking water, economic analysis, interviews, stakeholders, tariffs, wastewater, water conservation, water potential, Middle East, Syria
Abstract:
Greywater reuse is becoming an increasingly important factor for potable water saving in many countries. Syria is one of the most water scarce countries in the Middle East. However, greywater reuse is still not common in the country. Regulations and standards for greywater reuse are not available. Recently, however, several stakeholders have started to plan for greywater reuse. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential for potable water saving by using greywater for toilet flushing in a typical Syrian city. The Sweida city in the southern part of Syria was chosen for this purpose. Interviews were made in order to reflect the social acceptance, water consumption, and the percentage of different indoor water uses. An artificial wetland (AW) and a commercial bio filter (CBF) were proposed to treat the greywater, and an economic analysis was performed for the treatment system. Results show that using treated greywater for toilet flushing would save about 35% of the drinking water. The economic analyses of the two proposed systems showed that, in the current water tariff, the payback period for AW and CBF in block systems is 7 and 52 years, respectively. However, this period will reduce to 3 and 21 years, respectively, if full water costs are paid by beneficiaries. Hence, introducing artificial wetlands in order to make greywater use efficient appears to be a viable alternative to save potable water.
Agid:
475943