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Resveratrol Biosynthesis: Plant Metabolic Engineering for Nutritional Improvement of Food

Giovinazzo, Giovanna, Ingrosso, Ilaria, Paradiso, Annalisa, De Gara, Laura, Santino, Angelo
Plant foods for human nutrition 2012 v.67 no.3 pp. 191-199
absorption, bioavailability, biosynthesis, engineering, foods, fruits, grapes, humans, in vitro studies, nutrition, nutritive value, peanuts, resveratrol, stress tolerance, vegetables
The plant polyphenol trans-resveratrol (3, 5, 4′-trihydroxystilbene) mainly found in grape, peanut and other few plants, displays a wide range of biological effects. Numerous in vitro studies have described various biological effects of resveratrol. In order to provide more information regarding absorption, metabolism, and bioavailability of resveratrol, various research approaches have been performed, including in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models. In recent years, the induction of resveratrol synthesis in plants which normally do not accumulate such polyphenol, has been successfully achieved by molecular engineering. In this context, the ectopic production of resveratrol has been reported to have positive effects both on plant resistance to biotic stress and the enhancement of the nutritional value of several widely consumed fruits and vegetables. The metabolic engineering of plants offers the opportunity to change the content of specific phytonutrients in plant - derived foods. This review focuses on the latest findings regarding on resveratrol bioproduction and its effects on the prevention of the major pathological conditions in man.