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Screening and characterization of ethanol-tolerant and thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria from Chinese vinegar Pei

Chen, Yang, Bai, Ye, Li, Dongsheng, Wang, Chao, Xu, Ning, Hu, Yong
World journal of microbiology & biotechnology 2016 v.32 no.1 pp. 14
Acetobacter pasteurianus, acetic acid, acetic acid bacteria, biotechnology, ethanol, fermenters, heat tolerance, industry, ribosomal DNA, screening, submerged fermentation, temperature, vinegars, China
Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are important microorganisms in the vinegar industry. However, AAB have to tolerate the presence of ethanol and high temperatures, especially in submerged fermentation (SF), which inhibits AAB growth and acid yield. In this study, seven AAB that are tolerant to temperatures above 40 °C and ethanol concentrations above 10 % (v/v) were isolated from Chinese vinegar Pei. All the isolated AAB belong to Acetobacter pasteurianus according to 16S rDNA analysis. Among all AAB, AAB4 produced the highest acid yield under high temperature and ethanol test conditions. At 4 % ethanol and 30–40 °C temperatures, AAB4 maintained an alcohol–acid transform ratio of more than 90.5 %. High alcohol–acid transform ratio was still maintained even at higher temperatures, namely, 87.2, 77.1, 14.5 and 2.9 % at 41, 42, 43 and 44 °C, respectively. At 30 °C and different initial ethanol concentrations (4–10 %), the acid yield by AAB4 increased gradually, although the alcohol–acid transform ratio decreased to some extent. However, 46.5, 8.7 and 0.9 % ratios were retained at ethanol concentrations of 11, 12 and 13 %, respectively. When compared with AS1.41 (an AAB widely used in China) using a 10 L fermentor, AAB4 produced 42.0 g/L acetic acid at 37 °C with 10 % ethanol, whereas AS1.41 almost stopped producing acetic acid. In conclusion, these traits suggest that AAB4 is a valuable strain for vinegar production in SF.