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AA9 and AA10: from enigmatic to essential enzymes

Corrêa, Thamy Lívia Ribeiro, dos Santos, Leandro Vieira, Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães
Applied microbiology and biotechnology 2016 v.100 no.1 pp. 9-16
agricultural wastes, biomass, cellulose, endo-1,4-beta-glucanase, ethanol production, food production, hemicellulose, hydrolysis, lignin, lignocellulose, petroleum, sugars
The lignocellulosic biomass, comprised mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, is a strong competitor for petroleum to obtain fuels and other products because of its renewable nature, low cost, and non-competitiveness with food production when obtained from agricultural waste. Due to its recalcitrance, lignocellulosic material requires an arsenal of enzymes for its deconstruction and the consequent release of fermentable sugars. In this context, enzymes currently classified as auxiliary activity 9 (AA9/formerly GH61) and 10 (AA10/formerly CBM 33) or lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMO) have emerged as cellulase boosting enzymes. AA9 and AA10 are the new paradigm for deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass by enhancing the activity and decreasing the loading of classical enzymes to the reaction and, consequently, reducing costs of the hydrolysis step in the second-generation ethanol production chain. In view of that disclosed above, the goal of this work is to review experimental data that supports the relevance of AA9 and AA10 for the biomass deconstruction field.