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Silicon ameliorates manganese toxicity by regulating both physiological processes and expression of genes associated with photosynthesis in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Li, Ping, Song, Alin, Li, Zhaojun, Fan, Fenliang, Liang, Yongchao
Plant and soil 2015 v.397 no.1-2 pp. 289-301
Oryza sativa, adenosine triphosphate, carbon dioxide, carotenoids, chlorophyll, chloroplasts, gene expression, gene expression regulation, high-throughput nucleotide sequencing, hydroponics, leaves, manganese, photosystem I, physiological response, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, rice, seedlings, silicon, toxicity, transmission electron microscopy, ultrastructure
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We investigated the effects of silicon (Si) on chlorophyll concentration, photosynthesis, leaf chloroplast ultrastructure, and expression of genes involved in photosynthesis to elucidate the mechanisms through which Si mediated alleviation of manganese (Mn) toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.). METHODS: Rice seedlings were grown hydroponically with normal Mn (6.7 μM) or high Mn (2 mM) concentrations, both with (1.5 mM) and without Si supplementation. Leaf chloroplast ultrastructure was observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Differentially expressed genes relating to photosynthesis were identified by high-throughput sequencing, and their relative expression levels were evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR. RESULTS: Chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations and net photosynthesis decreased with chloroplast degradation under high Mn stress. High Mn concentrations may have inhibited photosynthesis through several mechanisms, including suppressing chlorophyll and ATP synthesis, decreasing light-harvesting processes, impairing photosystem I (PSI) stability and structure, and slowing activity of phosphoribulokinase. Si enhanced Mn tolerance efficiently by increasing chlorophyll concentration, light-use efficiency, and ATP concentration as well as by stabilizing the structure of PSI and promoting CO₂ assimilation. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest active involvement of Si in Mn detoxification, ranging from physiological responses to gene expression.