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Bioszén hatása a talaj-növény-mikróba rendszerre: előnyök és aggályok — Szemle

Kocsis, Tamás, Biró, Borbála
Agrokémia és talajtan 2015 v.64 no.1 pp. 257-272
bacteria, biochar, crop production, drying, microbial growth, mycorrhizal fungi, pH, plant nutrition, soil amendments, soil water, soil water retention, symbiosis, temperature
Data in the literature suggest that biochar products could be applied on a wide scale to influence soil-plant-microbe interactions. Biochar may improve physical and chemi-cal soil properties, soil water retention, clay and organic matter contents, pH levels, N and P availability, quantities of other meso- and micro-nutrients and, due to its high porosity, soil aeration and the content and ratio of oxygen. The positive effect on plant nutrition may be manifested both directly and indirectly. The more efficient growth of microorganisms in biochar-treated soils is well documented. Biochar protects the soil surface from drying out, provides a more oxygen-rich environment and supplies the micro-organisms with adsorbed organic materials, im-proving the growth of both bacteria and fungi. In addition to soil properties, a higher microbial population is also promoted by higher temperature and optimal pH levels. Publications on the integration of biochar into crop production technologies report yield increases, at least in the short term. However, the quantities and activity of the micro-symbiont bacteria and P-mobilizing mycorrhizal fungi that are beneficial for crop pro-duction exhibit strong dose- and product-dependence. The efficiency of symbiosis may deteriorate in the case of environmental stress. The application of unnecessarily high rates is a cause for concern due to their nutritional and/or water-binding properties, particularly as this may lead to the multiplication of soil-borne pathogenic microorganisms. Biochar could therefore be a valuable soil amendment, but it can only be exploited safely if applied with caution after the detailed physical, chemical and biological analy-sis of the soil.