Main content area

Javaslat az antropogén talajok osztályozására a hazai, megújuló osztályozási rendszer keretei között

Farsang, Andrea, Szolnoki, Zsuzsanna, Barta, Károly, Puskás, Irén
Agrokémia és talajtan 2015 v.64 no.1 pp. 299-316
Anthrosols, anthropogenic activities, anthropogenic soil types, bitumen, concrete, humans, soil classification, soil horizons, soil profiles, surveys, toxicity, urban areas, Hungary
The drastic increase in the population, the intensification of agriculture and the intensive use of chemicals, the spread of industries and urban settlements, and developments in infrastructure and mining operations have resulted in considerable, often profound changes in the soil cover over large areas. Hence, the classification of anthropogenic soils and their differentiation from natural soils has now become essential. The proposed new Hungarian classification system does not as yet contain specifications for ‘Anthrosols’. The present article surveys several anthropogenic soils from Csongrád County (Hungary), previously classified in the international WRB system, in order to demonstrate the main problems and difficulties involved in their classification. The analysis of various soil profiles led to the following definition of ‘Anthrosols’: “Other soils having 1. 20% or more artefacts by volume (weighted average) (artefact variant), or 2. a continuous layer of very slowly permeable to impermeable artificial material (e.g. concrete, asphalt, geomembrane, etc.) of any thickness (impermeable variant), or 3. a new soil horizon originating from human activity (modified variant), or 4. soil horizons of which the original sequence has been changed by anthropogenic activities (disturbed variant) within 100 cm of the soil surface.” Qualifiers belonging to practically any other reference group may also occur in Anthrosols, but there are a few which should definitely be specified in the case of anthro-pogenic soils, such as ‘Humic’, ‘Buried’, ‘Multilayered’ and ‘Toxic’. In addition, the use of the qualifiers applied to Anthrosols should also be extended to other reference groups of natural origin if they have anthropogenic soil features, such as ‘Compacted’, ‘Eroded’, ‘Crusted’, or ‘Artefacted’. Considering the extremely heterogenic urban environment, which is one of the most common locations of Anthrosols, it will also be necessary to develop a special method-ology for analysis and mapping. The most important of these is the estimation of the spatial validity of the soil type based on field surveys.