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Diversity of active constituents in <i>Cichorium endivia</i> and <i>Cynara cornigera</i> extracts

Hegazy, Ahmad K., Ezzat, Shahira M., Qasem, Iman B., Ali-Shtayeh, Mohamed S., Basalah, Mohammed O., Ali, Hayssam M., Hatamleh, Ashraf A.
Acta biologica Hungarica 2015 v.66 no.1 pp. 103-118
Cichorium endivia, Cynara, beta-sitosterol, butanol, ethyl acetate, flavonoids, inflorescences, leaves, methylene chloride, oleanolic acid, petroleum, phenols, plant extracts, roots, solvents, stigmasterol, Egypt
The present study attempts to explore the phytochemical constituents of different extracts from <i>Cynara cornigera</i> and <i>Cichorium endivia</i> plant materials. The two species studied are native in Egypt. Five different solvents, <i>viz.</i>, aqueous, methylene chloride, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and <i>n</i>-butanol were used. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, sterols (stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol), terpenes (α-amyrin, ursolic and oleanolic acid), and hydrocarbons (<i>n</i>-alkane), the latter found in low amount. The ethyl acetate and water extracts of <i>C. cornigera</i> root showed lower mass fractions of phenolic compounds ranged from 20 to 81 g/100 g, and higher amounts in ethyl acetate extract of the inflorescences and butanol extract of the root where values ranged from 195 to 399 g/100 g. The β-sitosterol and stigmasterol were present in all plant extracts. Oleanolic and ursolic acids were detected in roots, leaves and inflorescences of <i>C. cornigera</i> and in <i>C. endivia</i> shoot. The ethyl acetate extracts from <i>C. cornigera</i> leaf and inflorescence attained higher chemical diversity than the other extracts. Alternatively, sterols and triterpenes were the major constituents. The high chemical diversity of active constituents justifies the future potential use of the two species at commercial level.