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Laying the foundations of evolutionary and systematic studies in crickets (Insecta, Orthoptera): a multilocus phylogenetic analysis

Chintauan‐Marquier, Ioana C., Legendre, Frédéric, Hugel, Sylvain, Robillard, Tony, Grandcolas, Philippe, Nel, André, Zuccon, Dario, Desutter‐Grandcolas, Laure
Cladistics 2016 v.32 no.1 pp. 54-81
Gryllidae, Gryllotalpidae, acoustics, biogeography, databases, monophyly, polyphyly
Orthoptera have been used for decades for numerous evolutionary questions but several of its constituent groups, notably crickets, still suffer from a lack of a robust phylogenetic hypothesis. We propose the first phylogenetic hypothesis for the evolution of crickets sensu lato, based on analysis of 205 species, representing 88% of the subfamilies and 71% tribes currently listed in the database Orthoptera Species File (OSF). We reconstructed parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenies using fragments of 18S, 28SA, 28SD, H3, 12S, 16S, and cytb (~3600 bp). Our results support the monophyly of the cricket clade, and its subdivision into two clades: mole crickets and ant‐loving crickets on the one hand, and all the other crickets on the other (i.e. crickets sensu stricto). Crickets sensu stricto form seven monophyletic clades, which support part of the OSF families, “subfamily groups”, or subfamilies: the mole crickets (OSF Gryllotalpidae), the scaly crickets (OSF Mogoplistidae), and the true crickets (OSF Gryllidae) are recovered as monophyletic. Among the 22 sampled subfamilies, only six are monophyletic: Gryllotalpinae, Trigonidiinae, Pteroplistinae, Euscyrtinae, Oecanthinae, and Phaloriinae. Most of the 37 tribes sampled are para‐ or polyphyletic. We propose the best‐supported clades as backbones for future definitions of familial groups, validating some taxonomic hypotheses proposed in the past. These clades fit variously with the morphological characters used today to identify crickets. Our study emphasizes the utility of a classificatory system that accommodates diagnostic characters and monophyletic units of evolution. Moreover, the phylogenetic hypotheses proposed by the present study open new perspectives for further evolutionary research, especially on acoustic communication and biogeography.