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Diversity among mandarin varieties and natural sub‐groups in aroma volatiles compositions

Goldenberg, Livnat, Yaniv, Yossi, Doron‐Faigenboim, Adi, Carmi, Nir, Porat, Ron
Journal of the science of food and agriculture 2016 v.96 no.1 pp. 57-65
Citrus, breeding, clementines, hybrids, odors, parents, principal component analysis, satsumas, sesquiterpenoids, tangelos, tangors
BACKGROUND: Mandarins constitute a large, diverse and important group within the Citrus family. Here, we analysed the aroma volatiles compositions of 13 mandarin varieties belonging to seven genetically different natural sub‐groups that included common mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco), clementine (C. clementina Hort. ex. Tan), satsuma (C. unshiu Marcovitch), Mediterranean mandarin (C. deliciosa Tenore), King mandarin (C. nobilis Loureiro), and mandarin hybrids, such as tangor (C. reticulata × C. sinensis) and tangelo (C. reticulata × C. paradisi). RESULTS: We found that mandarin varieties among tangors (‘Temple’, ‘Ortanique’), tangelos (‘Orlando’, ‘Minneola’) and King (‘King’) had more volatiles, at higher levels, and were richer in sesquiterpene and ester volatiles, than other varieties belonging to the sub‐groups common mandarin (‘Ora’, ‘Ponkan’), clementine (‘Oroval’, ‘Caffin’), satsuma (‘Okitsu’, ‘Owari’) and Mediterranean mandarin (‘Avana’, ‘Yusuf Efendi’). Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis accurately differentiated between mandarin varieties and natural sub‐groups according to their aroma‐volatile profiles. CONCLUSIONS: Although we found wide differences in aroma‐volatiles compositions among varieties belonging to different natural sub‐groups, we detected only minor differences among varieties within any natural sub‐group. These findings suggest that selecting appropriate parents would enable manipulation of aroma‐volatile compositions in future mandarin breeding programmes. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry