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Effects of amaranth addition on the pro‐vitamin A content, and physical and antioxidant properties of extruded pro‐vitamin A‐biofortified maize snacks
- Beswa, Daniso, Dlamini, Nomusa R, Amonsou, Eric O, Siwela, Muthulisi, Derera, John
- Journal of the science of food and agriculture 2016 v.96 no.1 pp. 287-294
- antioxidant activity, corn, foods, hardness, health promotion, leaves, snacks, vegetables, vitamin A, vitamin A deficiency, Southern Africa
- BACKGROUND: Pro‐vitamin A‐biofortified maize snacks with added leafy vegetable may have a potential as nutritious and health‐promoting products, especially in addressing vitamin A deficiency, which is prevalent in developing regions. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of adding amaranth leaf powder on the physical, antioxidant properties and pro‐vitamin A content of extruded pro‐vitamin A‐biofortified maize snacks. Extruded snacks were processed using four pro‐vitamin A‐biofortified maize varieties that were composited with amaranth leaf powder at 0%, 1% and 3% (w/w) substitution levels. RESULTS: At higher amaranth concentration, the expansion ratio of the snacks decreased, while their hardness increased by as much as 93%. The physical quality of the snacks may therefore need improvement. As amaranth was increased, the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the snacks increased as well as the pro‐vitamin A content. CONCLUSION: Pro‐vitamin A‐biofortified maize with added amaranth has a potential for use in nutritious and healthy extruded snacks. There are limited studies reporting on processing pro‐vitamin A maize with complementary plant foods, which is common with white maize in southern Africa; thus the current study serves as a baseline.