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Assessment of the relationships among coagulopathy, hyperfibrinolysis, plasma lactate, and protein C in dogs with spontaneous hemoperitoneum

Fletcher, Daniel J., Rozanski, Elizabeth A., Brainard, Benjamin M., Laforcade, Armelle M., Brooks, Marjory B.
Journal of veterinary emergency and critical care 2016 v.26 no.1 pp. 41-51
anticoagulants, blood sampling, case-control studies, coagulation, dogs, erythrocytes, fibrinogen, fibrinolysis, prothrombin, t-plasminogen activator, thromboplastin
OBJECTIVE: To relate coagulation and fibrinolysis derangements to shock severity as reflected by plasma lactate concentrations in dogs with spontaneous hemoperitoneum (SHP) and determine the impact on transfusions. DESIGN: Prospective, observational, case‐control study. SETTING: Three veterinary teaching hospitals. ANIMALS: Twenty‐eight client‐owned dogs with SHP and 28 breed‐ and age‐matched control dogs. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Blood samples for platelet counts, coagulation, and anticoagulant assays (prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, antithrombin, and protein C, thromboelastography [TEG]), fibrinolysis testing (d‐dimer and TEG lysis parameters with and without the addition of 50 U/mL of tissue plasminogen activator [TEG LY30 measured with the addition of 50 U/mL of tPA to the blood sample, LY30₅₀ and TEG LY60 measured with the addition of 50 U/mL of tPA to the blood sample, LY60₅₀; LY30 and LY60]), and plasma lactate as an indicator of severity of shock were collected from SHP dogs at the time of diagnosis. SHP dogs were hypocoagulable (prolonged prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time, decreased TEG maximum amplitude) and hyperfibrinolytic (increased LY30₅₀ and TEG LY60₅₀) compared to controls. The severity of hypocoagulability was related to protein C activity, while the severity of hyperfibrinolysis was related to plasma lactate concentration. Among the 18 dogs discharged from the hospital, LY30₅₀ was significantly associated with the dose of fresh frozen plasma administered, but none of the parameters were associated with the dose of red blood cells administered. CONCLUSIONS: Dogs with SHP have evidence of hypocoagulability, protein C deficiency, and hyperfibrinolysis. Parameters of hyperfibrinolysis were related to plasma lactate concentrations and volume of plasma transfused during hospitalization. These derangements resemble those found in people with acute coagulopathy of trauma and shock, and activation of protein C may be a common feature to both syndromes.