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Stationarity and Long Range Dependence of Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Evidence for Disaggregated Data
- Barros, Carlos Pestana, Gil-Alana, Luis A., Perez de Gracia, Fernando
- Environmental and resource economics 2016 v.63 no.1 pp. 45-56
- carbon dioxide, cement, emissions
- This paper examines the stationarity of global carbon dioxide emissions and its components—gas, liquids, solids, cement production and gas flaring, as well as global per capita emissions—for a long span of data using long range dependence techniques. The empirical results suggest that the series are highly persistent with orders of integration which are above 1 in practically all cases. Disaggregating the data by components, cement production displays the highest persistence, and allowing for structural breaks, two breaks are detected (at 1830 and 1946) for the total series and solids, and one single break (at 1946) for gas, liquids and cement production. In general, higher orders of integration are detected after the break at World War II.