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Inter- and Intraspecific Variability in Infectivity and Effectiveness of Five Glomus sp. Strains and Growth Response of Tomato Host

Author:
Takács, Tünde, Biró, I., Anton, A., Chaoxing, He
Source:
Agrokémia és talajtan 2006 v.55 no.1 pp. 251
ISSN:
0002-1873
Subject:
Chernozems, Claroideoglomus claroideum, Glomus fasciculatum, Glomus geosporum, Glomus mosseae, Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicum, biomass production, climatic factors, growth chambers, host plants, intraspecific variation, mycorrhizal fungi, nutrient uptake, pathogenicity, plant growth, plant nutrition, roots, shoots, sustainable agriculture, symbionts, tomatoes, vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae, Hungary
Abstract:
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are obligatory biotrophic symbionts living in the roots of most terrestrial plants. AM fungi (AMF) have a positive effect on plant growth and plant nutrition, especially under stress conditions. The aim of the present study was to observe the relationship between the mycorrhizal dependency and nutrient uptake of host plants and the rate of AMF colonization in a pot experiment. The degree of host growth responses to AMF colonization is expressed as mycorrhizal dependency (MD). The pot trial was set up with a sterilized calcareous chernozem soil from Nagyhörcsök (Hungary) in a growth chamber under controlled climatic conditions. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) plants were inoculated with Glomus claroideum (BEG23) , Glomus fasciculatum (BEG53), Glomus geosporum (BEG11), Glomus mosseae (BEG12) strains and a Glomus mosseae AMF culture produced by authors. The dry biomass production, the micro- and macronutrient concentrations of the shoots and the parameters of the mycorrhizal infection were determined. Each AM fungi species or isolate caused different and distinct changes in host plant growth and nutrient uptake. The biomass production of tomato increased significantly in the presence of AM symbiosis. The mean values of MD, calculated from shoot dry matter, varied between 36% and 55%. Mycorrhizal inoculation improved the P, N and K uptake of tomato. The highest values for root colonization, frequency of infection or arbuscular richness were found in the root of tomato inoculated with the two Glomus mosseae strains. The highest MD and nutrient contents appeared in the shoot of tomato treated withour Glomus mosseae strain, which may indicate a stronger affinity (compatibility) between the symbiotic partners. The results confirmed that the selected AMF strains are applicable in sustainable horticulture.
Agid:
4793639