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Fighting arboviral diseases: low toxicity on mammalian cells, dengue growth inhibition (in vitro), and mosquitocidal activity of Centroceras clavulatum-synthesized silver nanoparticles

Murugan, Kadarkarai, Aruna, Palanimuthu, Panneerselvam, Chellasamy, Madhiyazhagan, Pari, Paulpandi, Manickam, Subramaniam, Jayapal, Rajaganesh, Rajapandian, Wei, Hui, Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh, Devanesan, Sandhanasamy, Nicoletti, Marcello, Syuhei, Ban, Canale, Angelo, Benelli, Giovanni
Parasitology research 2016 v.115 no.2 pp. 651-662
2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Aedes aegypti, Centroceras, Dengue virus, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, algae, antioxidant activity, cytotoxicity, dengue, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, females, fluorescence, genes, growth retardation, insecticidal properties, larvae, lethal concentration 50, mammals, microbial growth, mosquito-borne diseases, nanoparticles, nanosilver, nitric oxide, people, pupae, risk, scanning electron microscopy, serotypes, viral load, virus replication
Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that has rapidly spread in all regions of the world in recent years. Female mosquitoes, mainly Aedes aegypti, transmit dengue. Approximately 3,900 million people, in 128 countries, are at risk of dengue infection. Recently, a focus has been provided on the potential of green-synthesized nanoparticles as inhibitors of the production of dengue viral envelope (E) protein in Vero cells and downregulators of the expression of dengue viral E gene. Algae are an outstanding reservoir of novel compounds, which may help in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases. In this research, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were rapidly synthesized using a cheap extract of the alga Centroceras clavulatum. AgNP were characterized by UV–vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In mosquitocidal assays, LC₅₀ values of C. clavulatum extract against A. aegypti larvae and pupae were 269.361 ppm (larva I), 309.698 ppm (larva II), 348.325 ppm (larva III), 387.637 ppm (larva IV), and 446.262 ppm (pupa). C. clavulatum extract also exhibited moderate antioxidant activity, both in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging assays. LC₅₀ values of C. clavulatum-synthesized AgNP were 21.460 ppm (larva I), 23.579 ppm (larva II), 25.912 ppm (larva III), 29.155 ppm (larva IV), and 33.877 ppm (pupa). Furthermore, C. clavulatum-synthesized AgNP inhibited dengue (serotype dengue virus type-2 (DEN-2)) viral replication in Vero cells. Notably, 50 μg/ml of green-synthesized AgNP showed no cytotoxicity on Vero cells while reduced DEN-2 viral growth of more than 80 %; 12.5 μg/ml inhibited viral growth of more than 50 %. Cellular internalization assays highlighted that untreated infected cells showed high intensity of fluorescence emission, which denotes high level of viral internalization. Conversely, AgNP-treated infected cells showed reduced levels of fluorescence, failing to show significant viral load. Overall, our study showed that alga-mediated synthesis of metal nanoparticles may be considered to develop newer, safer, and cheap tools in the fight against the dengue virus, serotype DEN-2, and its vector A. aegypti, with little cytotoxicity on mammalian cells.