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Eicosanoids mediate Galleria mellonella immune response to hemocoel injection of entomopathogenic nematode cuticles

Yi, Yunhong, Wu, Gongqing, Lv, Junliang, Li, Mei
Parasitology research 2016 v.115 no.2 pp. 597-608
Galleria mellonella, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Steinernema carpocapsae, antibacterial properties, arachidonic acid, bacteria, biological control, biosynthesis, dexamethasone, eicosanoids, encapsulation, entomopathogenic nematodes, hemocoel, hemocytes, host-parasite relationships, immune response, indomethacin, insect pests, larvae, microsymbionts, models, monophenol monooxygenase, palmitic acid, parasites, phagocytosis
Entomopathogenic nematodes are symbiotically associated with bacteria and widely used in biological control of insect pests. The interference of symbiotic bacteria with insect host immune responses is fairly well documented. However, knowledge of mechanisms regulating parasite–host interactions still remains fragmentary. In this study, we used nematode (Steinernema carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora) cuticles and Galleria mellonella larvae as parasite–host model, focused on the changes of innate immune parameters of the host in the early phase of nematode cuticle infection and investigated the role of eicosanoid biosynthesis pathway in the process. The results showed that injection of either S. carpocapsae or H. bacteriophora cuticles into the larval hemocoel both resulted in significant decreases in the key innate immune parameters (e.g., hemocyte density, microaggregation, phagocytosis and encapsulation abilities of hemocyte, and phenoloxidase and antibacterial activities of the cell-free hemolymph). Our study indicated that the parasite cuticles could actively suppress the innate immune response of the G. mellonella host. We also found that treating G. mellonella larvae with dexamethasone and indomethacin induced similar depression in the key innate immune parameters to the nematode cuticles. However, these effects were reversed when dexamethasone, indomethacin, or nematode cuticles were injected together with arachidonic acid. Additionally, we found that palmitic acid did not reverse the influence of the dexamethasone, indomethacin, or nematode cuticles on the innate immune responses. Therefore, we inferred from our results that both S. carpocapsae and H. bacteriophora cuticles inhibited eicosanoid biosynthesis to induce host immunodepression.