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Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Two Genes Encoding Tryptophan Decarboxylase from Aegilops variabilis with Resistance to the Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae) and Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne naasi)

Li, Lin, Zheng, Minghui, Long, Hai, Deng, Guangbing, Ishihara, Atsushi, Liu, Feng, Liang, Junjun, Pan, Zhifen, Yu, Maoqun
Plant molecular biology reporter 2016 v.34 no.1 pp. 273-282
Aegilops peregrina var. peregrina, Brachypodium distachyon, Heterodera avenae, Hordeum vulgare, Magnoliopsida, Meloidogyne naasi, Triticum urartu, abiotic stress, abscisic acid, amino acid motifs, crossing, cyst nematodes, genes, insects, methyl jasmonate, molecular cloning, pathogens, phylogeny, polypeptides, pyridoxal phosphate, root-knot nematodes, salicylic acid, secondary metabolites, tryptamine, tryptophan, wheat
Tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC), which catalyzes the conversion of Trp to tryptamine, provides a common backbone for many secondary metabolites, and is important in defending plants from abiotic stress such as pathogen infection and insect attack. In this study, we cloned two TDC genes, AeVTDC1 and AeVTDC2, from Ae. variabilis accession No. 1 with resistance to cereal cyst nematode (CCN) and root-knot nematode (RKN). AeVTDC1 and AeVTDC2 encode polypeptides of 510 and 518 amino acids, respectively, and both have a pyridoxal phosphate attachment site and specific catalytic residues. Comparative analyses of gene structure and amino acid motifs revealed that TDCs are highly conserved crossing the analyzed species in monocots and dicots. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that AeVTDCs were closer to TDCs of wheat, Ae. tauschii, Triticum urartu, Brachypodium distachyon, and Hordeum vulgare. Their functions and temporal and spatial expression patterns were investigated. Moreover, AeVTDC1 and AeVTDC2 exhibited different expression responses to the phytohormones abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and methyl jasmonate, suggesting that they may function differently in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. The inhibition of TDC activity with S-αFMT resulted in susceptibility of Ae. variabilis to CCN and RKN, suggesting that TDCs may play important roles in resistance to nematodes.