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Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis-Induced Expression Changes in Solanum lycopersicum Leaves Revealed by RNA-seq Analysis

Cervantes-Gámez, Rocío Guadalupe, Bueno-Ibarra, Mario Alonso, Cruz-Mendívil, Abraham, Calderón-Vázquez, Carlos Ligné, Ramírez-Douriet, Claudia María, Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio Eduardo, Villalobos-López, Miguel Ángel, Valdez-Ortíz, Ángel, López-Meyer, Melina
Plant molecular biology reporter 2016 v.34 no.1 pp. 89-102
RNA, Rhizophagus irregularis, Solanum lycopersicum, Xanthomonas vesicatoria, abiotic stress, fungi, gene expression, gene expression regulation, genes, hormone metabolism, leaves, pathogens, plants (botany), roots, sugars, tomatoes, transcription (genetics), transcriptome, transcriptomics, transporters, vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae
Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is a beneficial association between plant roots and fungi that occurs in approximately 80 % of terrestrial plants and which confers different benefits including mineral nutrient acquisition and enhanced defense capacity. Although mycorrhizal colonization takes place in roots, the symbiosis establishment has systemic effects in other parts of the plant, in processes such as nutrient translocation and systemic resistance. In order to understand the transcriptional changes that occur in leaves of mycorrhizal plants, we used RNA-seq technology to obtain the transcriptomes of leaves from mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum). Four weeks after inoculation with the fungus Rhizophagus irregularis, leaves from mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal tomato plants were used for transcriptome sequencing. Of the 21,113 genes expressed in tomato leaves, 742 genes displayed differential expression between the mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal conditions. Most of the transcriptional changes occurred in the “protein,” “RNA,” “signaling,” “transport,” “biotic and abiotic stresses,” and “hormone metabolism” categories. Some transcriptional changes also occurred in P, N, and sugar transporters, as would be expected for mycorrhizal colonization. Finally, several differentially expressed genes may be related to systemic defense priming, in agreement with our demonstration that symbiotic plants exhibited mycorrhiza-induced resistance against the foliar pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. This is the first study to take on a genome-wide analysis aimed at understanding the expression changes in leaves of mycorrhiza-colonized plants. The results will therefore be valuable to future analyses focused on specific genes, as well as detailed studies of the expression profiles of certain gene families.