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Distribution of porcine circovirus 2 cap antigen in the lymphoid tissue of pigs affected by postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome

Becskei, Zsolt, Aleksić-Kovačević, Sanja, Rusvai, Miklós, Balka, Gyula, Jakab, Csaba, Petrović, Tamaš, Knežević, Milijana
Acta veterinaria Hungarica 2010 v.58 no.4 pp. 483-498
Porcine circovirus-2, antigens, cytoplasm, farms, giant cells, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, lymph nodes, lymphocytes, macrophages, necropsy, polymerase chain reaction, postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, spleen, swine, tonsils, Serbia
The lymphatic organs of 50 pigs from a total of eight farms located at different sites in the epizootiological region of North Bačka County were studied to obtain data on the prevalence of circoviral infections in Serbia. All of the pigs examined had clinical signs suggestive of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). All pigs underwent necropsy and tissue samples were taken for histopathological, immunohistochemical (IHC) and PCR analysis. The presence of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) was established by PCR analysis in the organs of the pigs tested. The most frequent histopathological lesions of lymphoid tissue linked with the presence of positive immunostaining for PCV2 Cap antigen confirmed the existence of PMWS in all farms tested in North Bačka County. Using PCR, histopathological and IHC techniques, the presence of PMWS was proved in the Republic of Serbia. During necropsy, generalised enlargement of the lymph nodes was evident. The most common histopathological finding was lymphocyte depletion in the follicular and perifollicular areas of lymph nodes. Infiltration by macrophages was also recorded. By IHC analysis, the cytoplasm of macrophages was shown to contain a large amount of the ORF2-coded Cap antigen of PCV2. Lymphocyte depletion and large numbers of macrophages were recorded in the tonsils, spleen, intestinal lymphatic tissue, Peyer’s patches and ileocaecal valve. The presence of typical granulomatous lesions with multinuclear giant cells (MGCs) was also recorded in the lymphatic tissue. Cap antigen was shown to be present in macrophages and less often in lymphocytes.