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Determination of the <i>trans</i> fatty acid content of Serbian shortenings by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

Kravić, S., Marjanović, N., Suturović, Z., Švarc-Gajić, J., Stojanović, Z., Pucarević, M.
Acta alimentaria 2010 v.39 no.4 pp. 413-423
fatty acid composition, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, isomers, manufacturing, palm oils, palmitic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids, raw materials, shortenings, vegetable oil, Serbia
The fatty acid composition and <i>trans</i> fatty acid (TFA) content of Serbian shortenings were determined by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The saturated, <i>cis</i>-monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents were within the ranges of 16.0–89.0, 4.9–41.9 and 0.0–23.2% of total fatty acids, respectively. Among the saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid (4.8–48.7%) was dominant and its higher amount indicates that palm oil was the major contributor in the shortening manufacturing. The content of total <i>trans</i> fatty acids ranged from 0.0% to 48.7% of total fatty acids and the mean was 27.4%. <i>Trans</i> 18:1 isomers were the major group of TFA present in analysed samples, representing 94.2% of total <i>trans</i> isomers. The content of all 18:2 <i>trans</i> isomers ranged from 0.0% to 3.6% of total fatty acids. Among thirty-four analysed samples only six contained low level of TFA (0.0–3.1%) while the rest contained very high amounts of TFA (10.2–48.7%) which clearly indicate that partially hydrogenated vegetable oils are still the major raw materials used in the production of shortenings in Serbia.