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Assessment of Heavy Metals in Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) Grown in Sewage Sludge–Amended Soil
- Kumar, Vinod, Chopra, A. K., Srivastava, Sachin
- Communications in soil science and plant analysis 2016 v.47 no.2 pp. 221-236
- Spinacia oleracea, agronomic traits, cadmium, chromium, copper, heavy metals, manganese, nutrients, sewage, sewage sludge, soil, spinach, zinc, India
- The assessment of heavy metals in spinach (Spinacia oleracea) grown in sewage sludge–amended soil was investigated. The results revealed that sewage sludge significantly (P < 0.01) increased the nutrients and heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) in the soil. The contents of metals were found to be below the maximum levels permitted for soils in India. The most agronomic performance and biochemical components of S. oleracea were found at 50% concentrations of sewage sludge in both seasons. The contents of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, and Zn in S. oleracea were increased from 5% to 100% concentrations of sewage sludge in both seasons. The order of contamination factor (Cf) of different heavy metals was Mn > Cd > Cr > Zn > Cu for soil and Cr > Cd > Mn > Zn > Cu for S. oleracea plants after application of sewage sludge. Therefore, use of sewage sludge increased concentrations of heavy metals in soil and S. oleracea .