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Relationship between Instrumental and Sensory Texture Profile of Bread Loaves Made with Whole‐Wheat Flour and Fat Replacer

Scheuer, Patrícia Matos, Luccio, Marco Di, Zibetti, André Wüst, Miranda, Martha Zavariz, Francisco, Alicia
Journal of texture studies 2016 v.47 no.1 pp. 14-23
analysis of variance, chronic diseases, corn starch, correlation, diet, fat replacers, hardness, ingredients, lipid content, loaves, low fat foods, principal component analysis, sensory evaluation, texture, weight control, wheat, whole wheat bread, whole wheat flour
Food texture is one of the most widely measured quality attributes during processing and consumption, being measured by instrumental and sensory means. The aims of this study were to measure the textural parameters of the crumb of 14 whole‐wheat bread loaves made with whole‐wheat flour and fat replacer using instrumental methods and a sensory trained panel, and to determine the relationship between instrumental and sensory assessments. The data of instrumental and sensory texture were individually subjected to analysis of variance and correlated using principal component analysis. The analyses showed that for both (instrumental and sensory texture), the less firm, more elastic and more cohesive bread loaves have <60% whole‐wheat flour, regardless of the content of fat replacer. The hardness attribute, measured with a texturometer, was consistent with the results of other published works and with our sensory evaluation as the matrix showed correlation coefficients with high values. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Wheat bread is a common staple food around the world that can be used to deliver ingredients for specific health purposes. Diets rich in whole grain foods and low fat may be suggested to help to protect against several chronic diseases, as well as for weight management. At a pilot plant scale, it is very difficult to keep good quality standards for whole‐wheat products. Therefore, instrumental and sensory studies on loaf texture were used to perform texture profile analysis on the crumb structure of 14 different types of whole‐wheat bread loaves made with fat replacer (enzymatically modified corn starch).