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A research on evaluation of some fruit kernels and/or seeds as a raw material of vegetable oil industry

Özcan, M.M., Ünver, A., Arslan, D.
Quality assurance and safety of crops & foods 2014 v.7 no.2 pp. 187-191
Citrus madurensis, Malus, Prunus armeniaca, Prunus avium, Prunus cerasus, Prunus domestica, Prunus persica, Vitis vinifera, apples, apricots, cooking fats and oils, crude fat, fats and oils industry, fatty acid composition, free fatty acids, fruits, grapes, iodine value, peaches, peroxide value, plums, quality control, raw materials, refractive index, saponification number, seeds, specific gravity, vegetable oil
The crude oils obtained from the kernels of apple (<i>Malus</i> spp.), plum (<i>Prunus domestica</i> L.), apricot (<i>Prunus armeniaca</i> L.), sweet cherry (<i>Prunus avium</i> L.), mandarin (<i>Citrus mitis</i>), peach (<i>Prunus persica</i> L.), sour cherry (<i>Prunus cerasus</i> L.) and grape (<i>Vitis vinifera</i> L.) fruits were examined for some of their physicochemical properties and fatty acid compositions. The total oil content of the kernels ranged between 18.5-39.5%. While grape (20.2%) and apple (18.5%) seeds show the lowest oil content, the highest oil content was found in peach (39.5%) and apricot (38.8%) kernels. The saponification number and unsaponifiable matter contents of the samples varied between 170-195 and 0.93-1.59, respectively. The refractive index values of plum (1.478 nD 20 °C) and apricot (1.475 nD 20 °C) kernel oils were higher than the values of other kernel oils. The specific gravity, iodine number, peroxide value, free fatty acid and total crude fat contents of the kernels varied between 0.901 and 0.960, 95 and 135, 1.87 and 3.00 meq O<sub>2</sub>/kg oil, 0.92 and 3.5% and 18.49 and 39.5%, respectively. The kernel oils were found to be used as a source of edible oil with respect to their fatty acid composition and some physicochemical properties.