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Black cumin-fortified flat bread: formulation, processing, and quality

Osman, M.A., Alamri, M.S., Mohamed, A.A., Hussain, S., Gassem, M.A., Rahman, I.E. Abdel
Quality assurance and safety of crops & foods 2014 v.7 no.2 pp. 233-238
Food and Drug Administration, Nigella sativa, amylographs, antineoplastic activity, antioxidants, copper, dough, extensibility, flat breads, gelatinization, iron, mixing, phosphorus, potassium, protein content, quality control, starch granules, temperature, therapeutics, viscosity, water holding capacity, water uptake, whole wheat flour, zinc, United States
Black cumin (BC) (<i>Nigella sativa</i>) defatted meal was added at 5, 10, and 15% to whole wheat flour (WWF) in flat bread formulation so that to deliver daily intake of zinc, potassium, phosphorous, iron, and copper as well as high protein content. BC is known for its anticancer activities, immune stimulation, anti-inflammation, anti-hypertensive, anti-microbial, anti-parasitic, antioxidant and hypoglycemic. Although the water holding capacity of BC was twice as much as WWF, BC has minimal effect on the water absorption of WWF. The farinograph mixing tolerance index of the WWF dough has increased up to 133%, whereas dough stability has decreased by 41%. The extensibility of the control dough was not significantly (<i>P</i>?0.05) affected by BC, but the resistance to extension was reduced. The higher amylograph gelatinisation temperature indicates delay on starch granule swelling, but the peak viscosity dropped as a function of BC content, while the final viscosity was unchanged. By consuming one piece of this bread, one can receive the USA Food and Drug Administration recommended daily allowance of phosphorous, iron, copper, zinc, and potassium in addition to other therapeutic benefits of BC.