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Utilisation of buckwheat flour in leavened and unleavened Turkish flat breads
- Yıldız, G., Bilgiçli, N.
- Quality assurance and safety of crops & foods 2014 v.7 no.2 pp. 207-215
- additives, buckwheat flour, crude fiber, dough, energy, flat breads, gluten, iron, magnesium, mineral content, nutritional status, odors, phytic acid, potassium, quality control, rheological properties, rheology, sensory evaluation, sodium, taste, water uptake, wheat flour
- Whole buckwheat flour (WBF) was used in leavened flat bread (<i>bazlama)</i> and unleavened flat bread (<i>yufka)</i> formulations to improve the nutritional status of flat breads. WBF replaced wheat flour at 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% levels in both flat breads. The effects of WBF on some rheological properties of dough and some physical, chemical and sensory properties of flat breads were studied. The effects of some additives (gluten and sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate; SSL) for improving dough rheology and bread properties were also investigated. For this purpose WBF replaced wheat flour at 20, 30 and 40% levels in flat bread formulation with the aid of additives. WBF increased water absorption and development time values of dough up to 93.3% and 14.4 min, respectively. While dough stability, energy and resistance values were adversely affected by an increasing level of WBF, usage of gluten and SSL improved those parameters significantly. Ash, protein and crude fibre content of both flat breads were found at the highest ratio in 30-40% level of WBF with additive combination. Phytic acid content ranged between 163.03 and 651.04 mg/100 g in <i>bazlama</i> and between 220.01 and 772.34 mg/100 g in <i>yufka</i> samples. Fe, K, Mg and P contents of both flat breads increased with an increasing amount of WBF in formulation. Mineral content of <i>bazlama</i> samples increased from 0.96 to 1.72 mg/100 g for Fe, 165.92 to 272.71 mg/100 g for K, 36.21 to 109.01 mg/100 g for Mg and 131.13 to 264.72 mg/100 g for P with 40% WBF usage. WBF content above 10% caused an increment in darkness, yellowness and redness of the flat bread samples. A sensory analysis revealed that the taste and odour score decreased above the 20% WBF level for <i>bazlama</i> and 30% WBF level for <i>yufka</i> compared to control <i>bazlama</i>/<i>yufka</i>.