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Growth and ionic relations of various sunflower cultivars under saline environment / crecimiento y relaciones iónicas en las variedades de girasol cultivadas en las condiciones de salinidad / croissance et rapports ioniques de différents cultivars de tournesol dans un environnement salin

Ahmed, I., A., Ali, Mahmood, I.A., Salim, M., Hussain, N., Jamil, M.
Helia 2014 v.28 no.42 pp. 147-158
Helianthus annuus, atomic absorption spectrometry, biomass, bulk density, calcium, cultivars, fertilizers, field experimentation, genotype, growth performance, hydraulic conductivity, ions, irrigation, leaf area, magnesium, oils, pH, petioles, phosphorus pentoxide, potassium, sandy loam soils, seed yield, sodium, sowing date, stems
A field trial was conducted in Pindi Bhattian area on sandy loam soil (EC 4.85 dSm⁻¹; pH 7.95; hydraulic conductivity 3.92 cm h⁻¹; bulk density 1.42 g cm⁻³) to evaluate the growth performance of ten commercially cultivated sunflower genotypes under saline conditions. Ten sunflower genotypes were sown in plots (2.25 m x 15 m) according to a randomized complete block design (RCBD) in three replicates keeping the line-to-line distance of 75 cm and the plant-to-plant distance of 30 cm. The P₂O₅ (60 kg ha⁻¹) and K₂O (100 kg ha⁻¹) fertilizers were applied as SSP and SOP, respectively, at the time of sowing, while N (60 kg ha⁻¹) was applied in two equal splits (one half at sowing time and the other half at first irrigation). Five plants from each plot were randomly selected at maturity to get data on plant height (cm), shoot fresh weight (g), head fresh weight (g), and head diameter (cm). The upper fully matured leaves along with petiole (each from five plants) were collected for leaf area (cm²). Sodium, K, Ca and Mg were analyzed in digested samples using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Maximum shoot fresh weights by DK-3915, PARSUN-1 and CRN-1435 closely followed by PARC-9707 were 695.9, 682.3, 669.9 and 578.4 g per plant, respectively. Head fresh weights were highest in CRN-1435, 6451 and DK-3915. The cultivar 6451 produced a comparatively low shoot fresh weight but was significantly (p<0.0001) superior in seed yield (2475 kg ha⁻¹) that was 47% higher than the maximum shoot biomass producing variety DK-3915. The cultivars CRN-1435 and HU-777 were also among the highest seed yielding genotypes. K⁺ concentrations in leaves, petiole and stem of the genotype Super-25 and cultivar 6451 were maximum compared with the other genotypes. Generally, the cultivars having high concentration of K⁺ maintained a low concentration of Na⁺ in its leaves. The high potassium concentrations in leaves, petioles and stems suppressed the detrimental effect of Na⁺ ions on 1000-grain weight and percentage of oil. High Ca²⁺ concentrations were observed in leaves, petioles and stems of PARC-9707 and PARC-9706.