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Effects of nitrogen and plant density on dwarf sunflower hybrids

Süzer, S.
Helia 2014 v.33 no.53 pp. 207-214
Helianthus annuus, economic analysis, hybrids, nitrogen, plant density, planting, seed yield, yield components, Turkey (country)
This research was carried out to determine the seed yield and some yield components of two dwarf hybrids as compared to one standard-height sunflower hybrid (Helianthus annuus L.) at different nitrogen rates and planting densities. The study was carried out under natural rainfed conditions at the Thrace Agricultural Research Institute in Edirne-Turkey between 1999 and 2001. The experiments were set up in split-split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The main plot treatments were three different-height sunflower hybrids, DW-1, DW-2, and Trakya-80. The sub plots were three levels of nitrogen, 0, 60, and 120 kg N/ha. The sub-sub plots were three planting densities, 10 × 70 (142,850 plants/ha), 15 × 70 (95,230 plants/ ha), and 20 × 70 cm (71,430 plants/ha). Based on marginal economic analyses, the economically optimal seed yield per hectare was obtained at 50 kg N/ ha for DW-1 and at 80 kg N/ha for DW-2 and Trakya-80. In all three hybrids, increasing plant densities decreased 1000-seed weight, hull percentage, and head diameter but increased test weight in natural rainfed conditions. The highest seed yield in both dwarf hybrids was obtained with the spacing of 15 × 70 cm (95,230 plants/ha). The results of this research show that nitrogen and plant density have significant effects on seed yield and some yield components of different-height sunflower hybrids.