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Tan, A.S.
Helia 2014 v.33 no.53 pp. 77-84
Helianthus annuus, Orobanche, Puccinia helianthi, breeding lines, cost effectiveness, crossing, disease resistance, feed quality, germplasm, high-yielding varieties, honey bees, hybrids, irrigation, oilseed crops, open pollination, plant characteristics, planting date, recurrent selection, rust diseases, seed yield, specific combining ability, sunflower seed, vegetable oil, Turkey (country)
Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the important oilseed crops with a high oil percentage (45-50%) and oil quality. It can be grown in both the first and second crop production seasons in the Aegean Region with high yield capacity. According to the production data of 2008, sunflower was produced on 577,958 ha and 992,000 metric tons of sunflower seed were harvested in Turkey (Anonymous, 2010). Because of the gap in vegetable oil production in Turkey, sunflower is one of the alternative and leading oilseed crops for increasing vegetable oil production. One possibility for increasing this production is for sunflower to also be grown as the second crop in the Aegean Region. The mission of the Oilseed Research Project at the Aegean Agricultural Research Institute (AARI) is to reduce the cost of sunflower production by improving well adapted and high yielding varieties. A number of different approaches are utilized to achieve this goal. Improved germplasm for hybrid development and breeding lines of oilseed and confectionary type of sunflower germplasm (A, B and Rf lines) and also improved populations have been developed by conventional breeding techniques. To improve sunflower varieties with desired characters, genetic investigations and germplasm development of sunflower with improved yield, oil quality, resistance to disease [Sunflower rust (Puccinia helianthi Schw.)], insect, Orobanche sp., and adverse conditions are under consideration. The research program is aiming to develop oilseed and confectionary type of sunflowers for both the first and second crop production seasons.Sunflower germplasm has been developed from sources such as cultivars, populations created through breeding methods, or inter-specific crosses with wild germplasm and then tested for general and specific combining abilities, oil percentage, and resistance to prevalent disease and adverse conditions to construct improved varieties. For hybrid variety development, combining ability studies in oilseed and confectionary sunflower breeding program were undertaken with line × tester analysis. More than 2000 lines, candidate varieties, and commercial varieties were evaluated in preliminary and yield trials in the first and second crop production seasons. Variety performance tests and yield trials indicated that sunflower can be grown with satisfactory yield performance (approximately 500-550 kg da⁻¹) in both the first and second crop production seasons in the Aegean Region of Turkey.Improvement of oilseed and confectionary types of sunflower parental germplasms (A, B and Rf lines) including hybrid and open pollinated varieties has been carried out. The oilseed type of the open-pollinated variety Ege-2001 was developed by the S 0:1 generation testing method (modified recurrent selection) and has been registered.Effects of plant population, planting time, fertilizing, irrigation, and honeybee pollination on seed yield, oil percentage and other plant characteristics and silage quality of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were determined. Sunflower rust (Puccinia helianthi Schw.) race identification was performed under field conditions.