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Determinants of change in the duration of ice phenomena on the Vistula River in Toruń
- Pawłowski, Bogusław
- Vodohospodársky časopis 2015 v.63 no.2 pp. 145-153
- ice, river engineering, rivers, temperature, winter, Poland
- Winter season temperatures are becoming warmer. However, the transformation of the ice regime on the Vistula River in Toruń has also been affected by river engineering. In particular, the construction and operation of the Włocławek Dam had a significant impact on ice processes. The article presents the results of an analysis determining the contribution of natural and anthropogenic factors to the duration of ice phenomena and ice cover on the Vistula River in the city of Toruń. Compared to the end of the nineteenth century, there has been a reduction in the duration of ice phenomena from 88 to 53 days and of ice cover from 40 to 7 days (in the period of 1882-2011). The article compares the duration of ice cover and winter temperature in three different periods: before the completion of river engineering works (1882-1907); for the controlled river (1908-1969), and for the controlled river with the Włocławek Dam upstream of Toruń (1970-2011). The results showed a significant role of these anthropogenic factors in the changes of the ice cover duration on the Vistula River in Toruń.